Operation Gladio

After World War II, NATO built up secret armies in all countries of Western Europe. These troops were trained by the CIA and the UK Secret Service MI6. In some countries these armies have been involved in severe crimes, involving murder, torture, coups and terror.

The NATO secret armies, “stay-behind” armies, are today still unkown to wide circles. They are undercover anti-communist units, built up after WWII by the CIA and MI6 to fight as guerrillas behind enemy lines and to recover occupied land, should the Soviets invade Western Europe.

When the Italian secret army “Gladio” was uncovered by the Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti in 1990, more discoveries of similar armed networks followed in France, Germany, Greece, Holland, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Luxemburg, Denmark, Austria, Finnland, Sweden and Switzerland. The few data which are available to some members of Parliament, judges, journalists and academics, show that these secret armies waited in some countries for the Soviet invasion while other secret divisions cooperated with extreme right wing armed groups of the military to attack domestic political enemies and involved themselves in severe crimes.

  • Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    Date
    January 2006
    Author
    Dr. Daniele Ganser
    Publisher
    ETH Zürich
    Language
    english
    Pages
    2 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (319,64 KB/PDF)
  • Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    // INTRODUCTION

    Date
    January 2006
    Author
    Dr. Daniele Ganser
    Publisher
    ETH Zürich
    Language
    english
    Pages
    2 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (249,47 KB/PDF)
  • Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    // TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Date
    January 2006
    Author
    Dr. Daniele Ganser
    Publisher
    ETH Zürich
    Language
    english
    Pages
    1 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
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  • Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    // SYNOPSIS

    Date
    January 2006
    Author
    Dr. Daniele Ganser
    Publisher
    ETH Zürich
    Language
    english
    Pages
    7 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
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  • Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    // CHRONOLOGY

    Date
    January 2006
    Author
    Dr. Daniele Ganser
    Publisher
    ETH Zürich
    Language
    english
    Pages
    4 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
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  • Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    // BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Date
    January 2006
    Author
    Dr. Daniele Ganser
    Publisher
    ETH Zürich
    Language
    english
    Pages
    1 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (256,68 KB/PDF)
  • Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay­-Behind Armies

    // MEDIA DESK

    Date
    January 2006
    Author
    Dr. Daniele Ganser
    Publisher
    ETH Zürich
    Language
    english
    Pages
    8 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (334,76 KB/PDF)
  • Terrorism in Western Europe: An Approach to NATO’s Secret Stay-Behind Armies

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    Date
    October 2005
    Author
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    Publisher
    ETH Zürich
    Language
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    Pages
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    Country
    Switzerland
    File
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    Publisher
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    Language
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    Country
    Switzerland
    File
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    Publisher
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    Language
    german
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    Country
    Switzerland
    File
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  • Second Reply by the CIA to Daniele Ganser concerning the FOIA Request on 'Operation Gladio'

    Second Reply by the CIA to Daniele Ganser concerning the FOIA Request on 'Operation Gladio'

    Date
    February 2001
    Author
    Kathryn I. Dyer, CIA Information and Privacy Coordinator
    Publisher
    CIA
    Language
    english
    Pages
    4 pages
    Country
    United States
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (46,07 KB/PDF)
  • FOIA Appeal concerning CIA's 'Operation Gladio'

    FOIA Appeal concerning CIA's 'Operation Gladio'

    Date
    January 2001
    Author
    Daniele Ganser
    Language
    english
    Pages
    5 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (65,53 KB/PDF)
  • First Reply by the CIA to Daniele Ganser concerning the FOIA Request on 'Operation Gladio'

    First Reply by the CIA to Daniele Ganser concerning the FOIA Request on 'Operation Gladio'

    Date
    December 2000
    Author
    Kathryn I. Dyer, CIA Information and Privacy Coordinator
    Publisher
    CIA
    Language
    english
    Pages
    2 pages
    Country
    United States
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (26,77 KB/PDF)
  • FOIA Request on CIA's 'Operation Gladio' by Daniele Ganser

    FOIA Request on CIA's 'Operation Gladio' by Daniele Ganser

    Date
    December 2000
    Author
    Daniele Ganser
    Language
    english
    Pages
    3 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (45,63 KB/PDF)
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    Date
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    Language
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    File
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  • La fin du 'Gladio'

    La fin du 'Gladio'

    Date
    March 1992
    Author
    Pietro Cedomi
    Publisher
    FIRE !
    Language
    french
    Pages
    8 pages
    Country
    Belgium
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (7,06 MB/PDF)
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    Date
    January 1992
    Author
    Pietro Cedomi
    Publisher
    FIRE !
    Language
    french
    Pages
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    Country
    Belgium
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (5,33 MB/PDF)
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    November 1991
    Author
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    Publisher
    FIRE !
    Language
    french
    Pages
    4 pages
    Country
    Belgium
    File
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    Language
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    Country
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    Date
    July 1991
    Author
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    Publisher
    FIRE !
    Language
    french
    Pages
    5 pages
    Country
    Belgium
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (4,28 MB/PDF)
  • FOIA Request on CIA's 'Operation Gladio' by the National Security Archive

    FOIA Request on CIA's 'Operation Gladio' by the National Security Archive

    Date
    March 1991
    Author
    Malcolm Byrne
    Publisher
    National Security Archive
    Language
    english
    Pages
    1 pages
    Country
    United States
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (24,47 KB/PDF)
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    Date
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    Author
    Eidgenössisches Militärdepartment
    Language
    german
    Pages
    27 pages
    Country
    Switzerland
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (1 MB/PDF)
  • Running Scared

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    Date
    November 1990
    Author
    Flora Lewis
    Publisher
    New York Times
    Language
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    Pages
    1 pages
    Country
    United States
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (85,73 KB/PDF)
  • Panique au SDRA

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    Date
    November 1990
    Author
    Serge Dumont
    Publisher
    L'Express
    Language
    french
    Pages
    1 pages
    Country
    Belgium
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (873,87 KB/PDF)
  • Rapport transmis par Andreotti à la commission Stragi 'SID parallelo - Operazione Gladio'

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    Date
    October 1990
    Author
    Jean­-François Brozzu­-Gentile
    Publisher
    Stragi Commission of the Italian Senate
    Language
    french
    Pages
    7 pages
    Country
    Italy
    File
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    Date
    January 1990
    Author
    Giovanni Pellegrino, President of the Senate Commission
    Publisher
    Senato della Republica
    Language
    italian
    Pages
    19 pages
    Country
    Italy
    File
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    November 1984
    Author
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    Publisher
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    Country
    Germany
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    Date
    January 1978
    Author
    William Colby
    Publisher
    Simon and Schuster, New York
    Language
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    Pages
    15 pages
    Country
    United States
    File
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    Date
    March 1970
    Author
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    Publisher
    Department of the Army
    Language
    english
    Pages
    8 pages
    Country
    United States
    File
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  • Le 'forze speciali' del SIFAR e l'operazione 'GLADIO'

    Le 'forze speciali' del SIFAR e l'operazione 'GLADIO'

    Date
    June 1959
    Author
    Primo Moroni, Mario Coglitore & Sandro Scarso 
    Publisher
    Italian Military Secret Service (SIFAR)
    Language
    italian
    Pages
    13 pages
    Country
    Italy
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (178,66 KB/PDF)
  • Note by the Secretaries to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Clandestine Intelligence

    Note by the Secretaries to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Clandestine Intelligence

    Date
    January 1957
    Author
    Joint Secretariat, US Joint Chiefs of Staff
    Publisher
    U.S. Department of Defense
    Language
    english
    Pages
    4 pages
    Country
    United States
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (55,12 KB/PDF)
  • CIA: Operational Review of KIBITZ-15 Net

    CIA: Operational Review of KIBITZ-15 Net

    Date
    January 1953
    Author
    CIA Chief of Mission Frankfurt
    Publisher
    CIA (Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act)
    Language
    english
    Pages
    16 pages
    Country
    Germany
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (2,67 MB/PDF)
  • CIA: Personal Profile Walter Kopp

    CIA: Personal Profile Walter Kopp

    Date
    December 1952
    Author
    CIA
    Publisher
    CIA (Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act)
    Language
    english
    Pages
    1 pages
    Country
    Germany
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (191,42 KB/PDF)
  • CIA: Operational Clearance Status of Staybehind Agents

    CIA: Operational Clearance Status of Staybehind Agents

    Date
    May 1952
    Author
    CIA
    Publisher
    CIA (Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act)
    Language
    english
    Pages
    5 pages
    Country
    Germany
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (794,63 KB/PDF)
  • CIA: Cryptonyms for Staybehind Operations

    CIA: Cryptonyms for Staybehind Operations

    Date
    December 1951
    Author
    CIA Chief of Station Karlsruhe
    Publisher
    CIA (Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act)
    Language
    english
    Pages
    1 pages
    Country
    Germany
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (242,65 KB/PDF)
  • CIA: Staybehind Operations in Germany

    CIA: Staybehind Operations in Germany

    Date
    October 1951
    Author
    CIA
    Publisher
    CIA (Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act)
    Language
    english
    Pages
    5 pages
    Country
    Germany
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (596,88 KB/PDF)
  • CIA: Project KIBITZ Approval

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    Date
    October 1951
    Author
    CIA Chief of Station Karlsruhe
    Publisher
    CIA (Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act)
    Language
    english
    Pages
    10 pages
    Country
    Germany
    File
    Adobe PDF Download (1,28 MB/PDF)
  • CIA: KIBITZ Walter Kopp

    CIA: KIBITZ Walter Kopp

    Date
    August 1950
    Author
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    Publisher
    CIA (Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act)
    Language
    english
    Pages
    3 pages
    Country
    Germany
    File
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